Thursday, 21 April 2011

Karnaval di Indonesia

Di Indonesia, karnaval sering di adakan pada Hari Ulang Tahun Kemerdekaan Republik Indonesia di setiap tahunnya. HUT RI tersebut jatuh pada tanggal 17 Agustus, akan tetapi perayaan karnaval dilaksanakan selain pada tanggal 17 di bulan Agustus. Pesertanya berasal dari berbagai kalangan mulai dari masyarakat umum, pelajar, instansi, maupun organisasi.
Semua peserta akan berkreasi dalam pentas seni tersebut sebagai apresiasi dalam mewakili karakter masing-masing peserta. Biasanya peserta pelajar yang mewakili sekolahannya akan menampilkan potensi, program, eksistensi maupun image sekolahnya. Peserta dari pihak instansi biasanya menampilkan program dan image instansinya. Peserta organisasi biasanya menampilkan potensi, eksistensi, dan image organisasinya. Bagi peserta dari masyarakat umum ini lebih atraktif dalam penampilannya, biasanya menampilkan image, potensi, program wilayah, kesenian daerah tersebut hingga hasil buminya.
Sangat menarik untuk mengamati perayaan karnaval ini, karena pasti berubah-ubah dalam setiap tahunnya. Bagi peserta yang mendapat penilaian terbaik akan menjadi pemenang dan sudah pasti mendapat hadiah dari kepala daerah yang mengadakannya, meskipun hadiah tersebut tidaklah banyak dan tidak sebanding dari dana pengeluaran peserta saat mengikuti perayaan itu.

Monday, 18 April 2011

Pengertian Tattoo

Kata “tato” berasal dari kata Tahitian / Tatu, yang memilki arti : menandakan sesuatu. Rajah atau tato (Bahasa Inggris: tattoo) adalah suatu tanda yang dibuat dengan memasukkan pigmen ke dalam kulit. Dalam istilah teknis, rajah adalah implantasi pigmen mikro. Rajah dapat dibuat terhadap kulit manusia atau hewan. Rajah pada manusia adalah suatu bentuk modifikasi tubuh, sementara rajah pada hewan umumnya digunakan sebagai identifikasi.
Rajah merupakan praktik yang ditemukan hampir di semua tempat dengan fungsi sesuai dengan adat setempat. Rajah dahulu sering dipakai oleh kalangan suku-suku terasing di suatu wilayah di dunia sebagai penandaan wilayah, derajat, pangkat, bahkan menandakan kesehatan seseorang. Rajah digunakan secara luas oleh orang-orang Polinesia, Filipina, Kalimantan, Afrika, Amerika Utara, Amerika Selatan, Mesoamerika, Eropa, Jepang, Kamboja, serta Tiongkok. Walaupun pada beberapa kalangan rajah dianggap tabu, seni rajah tetap menjadi sesuatu yang populer di dunia.
Menurut Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia, tato berarti gambar (lukisan) pada bagian (anggota) tubuh.


Sumber : Wikipedia.

Tuesday, 12 April 2011

Lereng Gunung Wilis-Madiun

Kare - Madiun


Kare - Madiun




Kare - Madiun


Disini Anda bisa melihat pemandangan yang sangat indah dan merasakan udaranya yang sejuk sekali. Sepanjang mata memandan Anda akan melihat hamparan hijau, mayoritas wilayahnya ditumbuhi pohon jati dan berbagai macam tumbuhan lainnya, seperti : Coklat, Cengkeh, Kopi, Durian, Mangga, Alpukat, Rambutan dll. Pohon jati merupakan komoditi unggulan dari wilayah ini, karena kayunya sangat baik untuk dimanfaatkan dalam berbagai macam perabot rumah tangga dan kualitasnya memang masih yang terbaik. selain itu, di wilayah ini terdapat juga beberapa tempat lain yang layak dikunjungi yaitu seperti : Monumen Kresek, Air Terjun Kedung Malem, Kebun Kopi. 

Silahkan Anda kunjungi wilayah ini disaat Liburan bersama Keluarga, teman, maupun sendirian. Akses wilayah ini dapat melalui jalur dari arah kota Madiun atau, dari kota Caruban. Anda akan merasakan keindahan alam pegunungan yang indah dan alami, dan jangan lupa untuk membawa Camera Photo agar setiap tempat yang Anda anggap indah dapat diabadikan.


Salam Terima Kasih dan Semoga Bermanfaat.

Tuesday, 5 April 2011

Suhu dan Skala Perbandingannya






Suhu dan Skala Perbandingannya


Secara umum telah digunakan dua Skala Suhu, yaitu Skala Celcius dan Skala Fahrenheit. Dalam bidang karya Ilmiah, pada umumnya digunakan Skala Kelvin. Namun di beberapa Negara menggunakan Skala lain, yaitu Skala Reamur. Pada Skala Celcius, titik beku Air adalah 0o dan titik didih Air 1000. dalam Skala Kelvin, derajat kenaikan Suhu mempunyai bagian-bagian yang sama seperti pada Skala  Celcius, tetapi 00 Kelvin merupakan Nol Mutlak, yaitu suatu Suhu dimana tempat Atom dan Molekul secara teori akan berhenti.
Pada Skala Celcius, Nol Mutlak adalah -273,16. Pada Skala Fahrenheit, titik beku Air adalah 320 dan titik didih Air 2120, sedangkan Nol Mutlak -459,690.

Rumus Perubahan Sederhana untuk mengubah berbagai Skala Suhu yang berbeda :

·        ( 0Celcius 9/5 ) + 32 = 0Fahrenheit
·        (  0Fahrenheit – 32 ) x 5/9 =  0Celcius
·        10 Celcius = 1,80 Fahrenheit
·        0 Kelvin = 0 Celcius + 273,16
·        0 Celcius = 0 Kelvin – 273,16
·        ( [ 0 Kelvin - 273,16 ] x 9/5 ) + 32 =  0Fahrenheit
·        ( [ 0Fahrenheit – 32 ] x 5/9 ) + 273,16 = 0 Kelvin
·        0 Reamur x 5/4 = 0Celcius
·        0 Reamur x 9/4 + 32 =  0Fahrenheit

Beberapa Perubahan antara Celcius dan Fahrenheit terdaftar dibawah ini :

0Fahrenheit           0Celcius              

      -40                         -40                         
      -31                         -35                       
      -22                         -30                         
      -13                         -25                          
        0                          -17,8                       
        5                          -15                          
       14                         -10                         
       23                         -5                            
            32                          0               
               
   0Fahrenheit               0Celcius

            77                          25
       86                          30
      104                         40
      122                         50
      131                         55
      140                         60
      158                         70
      167                         75
           185                         85

Pengetahuan Ilmiah





Pengetahuan Ilmiah

·        Ilmu               : Cara-cara atau Aturan-aturan yang digunakan untuk Memperoleh Pengetahuan yang Benar.
·        Ilmiah            : Sesuatu yang Bersifat Ilmu atau yang Memungkinkan digunakannya Ilmu.
·        Ilmu
           Penetahuan   : Ilmu yang diperoleh dari Penelitian atau Studi.


Syarat-syarat Pengetahuan Ilmiah

  1. Obyektif       : Luas

·        Pengetahuan yang Obeyektif adalah Pengetahuan yang Sesuai dengan Realitas.
·        Luas berarti bukan saja Melihat jumlahnya PE.
·        PE = Pengetahuan Elementer.

  1. Dalam           : Penelitian yang Mendalam atau Menyeluruh.

  1. Relatif           : Tergantung.
·        Suatu Pengetahuan disebut Relatif bila disandarkan pada suatu Syarat / Ketentuan / suatu Dalil tertentu.

  1. Dapat di Abstraksi.
·        Abstraksi berarti Memisahkan Ciri khusus yang kurang Essensial dari PE secara Individual atau yang Membedakannya dengan Individu lainnya, dianggap tidak ada, dan diambil hanya Ciri-ciri yang Essensial dari PE agar Terbentuk Kelas-kelas atau Kelompok-kelompok yang ditandai oleh Pengertian atau Sebutan tertentu.

  1. Dapat di Konkritisasi.
·        Proses Konkritisasi : Kebalikan dari Abstraksi yaitu, memberikan Penjelasan, Pengertian atau Contoh-contoh dari sebuah Istilah atau Pertanyaan.
·         
  1. Sistematis : Berasal dari kata Synistanai yang artinya, Menempatkan Bersama-sama, Menyusun.
·        Sistem : Suatu Kebulataan atau Susunan Buah Fikiran yang disusun Secara Teratur dan Metodis, dan juga Suatu Skema atau Metode Formil yang dipedomi dalam Menyusun . . . . . . .
·         
  1. Terdisiplin : Menempatkan dibawah Pengawasan, Menertibkan atau Mengatur.

  1. Berkembang : Perkembangan Pengetahuan  didorong oleh Lalu lintas Pengetahuan.


  1. Metodis instrumental : Orang tidak perlu mengetahui sebanyak-banyaknya tentang Hal, Cukup sejumlah Kecilnya saja Pengetahuan yang disebut Pengetahuan Kunci, asal saja dengan Pengetahuan yang sedikit itu, yang Bersangkutan Mampu Memecahkan Masalah-masalah yang Kongkrit atau Mampu mengingatkan Dia akan Pengetahuan-pengetahuan lainnya yang Terpendam atau sudah dipendam ( endap ) kan. Sebagai contoh tentang Mengingat seperti : Able, disable, ability, disability, ably, unable, dengan cara hanya Mengingat able saja.

  1. Mobile : Mobilitas Pengetahuan memungkinkan suatu Pengertian Bergerak atau digerakkan ke segala Penjuru, Seolah-olah Dia berada dalam suatu Sistem Stereometris Multi Dimensional.


  1. Terbuka : Mengandung arti yaitu ;
·        Dapat dipelajari oleh Siapa saja menurut Kemampuan dan Kebutuhan masing-masing.
·        Disebarkan dan ditanamkan Seluas-luasnya tanpa Pengrahasiaan atau Pemalsuan.
·        Terbuka untuk Kritisisme.

Home Networking





Work and play together


Linking computers to create a network greatly expands their capacity and can even save you money! Does your home contain two or more computers? By networking them, you can:
  • Share a single Internet connection. Microsoft® Windows® XP has a feature called Internet Connection Sharing (ICS). Using ICS, one computer, called the ICS host, shares its Internet connection with the rest of the computers on the network. By sharing one Internet connection, you can simultaneously surf the Web on your computer while another family member checks e-mail on a different computer.
  • Share a printer, scanner, and other hardware. You may have a printer that is connected to a computer in another room. With home networking, you can print to this printer from your computer. You no longer have to copy a file onto a floppy disk and take it to the computer that has the printer.
  • Share files and folders. Suppose your child asks you to look at a school report that is located on the computer in his or her bedroom. When computers are networked together you can, for instance, open the file from your computer, make changes, and then save the file on your child's computer.
  • Play multi-computer games. By networking and sharing an Internet connection, family members can play games on separate computers with each other or on the Internet. And while they're playing, you can be surfing the Web, too — for example, visiting your favorite financial or sports sites.
And there's more: Microsoft Windows XP makes home networking easier than ever. But first you must link your computers together, by installing appropriate hardware in each and by joining the computers with wires or by means of wireless technology. This article explains the process from start to finish. You'll learn how to choose the right network technology for your home, the right components to obtain, and how to install and connect them properly. There's also a section on protecting your home network from outside hackers by creating a secure barrier called a firewall, the same as that used by businesses.


A network is more than the sum of its parts. Networked computers can share an Internet connection, printer and other hardware, and view files in common. You can even use a network to play multi-user computer games.

Sample Setups




To help determine which network technology best suits your needs answer these questions:
  • How many computers do you have?
  • Where are they located—are they in the same room or different rooms?
  • Are any of your computers laptops?
  • Do any of your computers have network adapters installed? If so, what are their types (Ethernet, HPNA, or wireless)?
Apply your answers to the following examples of home network layouts and configurations. These suggest how to use the different hardware choices available and can guide you in deciding which hardware you need to buy.

Computers are in the same room

You have a home office and all of your computers are in the same room. In this example setup, the most cost-effective network technology is Ethernet. If none of the computers has an Ethernet network adapter, purchase:
  • One USB Ethernet network adapter for each computer.
  • One Ethernet network hub with enough ports for connecting each computer.
  • RJ-45 network cables for each computer
Another solution is to buy wireless network adapters for each computer. An added advantage of using wireless adapters, besides eliminating the need for physical wires, is that you can easily add other wireless-equipped computers—such as laptops—later.
It is common in either setup to connect the ICS host computer to the Internet via an external DSL or cable modem attached to an Ethernet network adapter. Should you do this, you must purchase a second Ethernet or wireless network adapter for the host computer. The second adapter is necessary so the computer can communicate with the other computers on the network

Computers in different rooms

In this network example, you've recently purchased your new Windows XP computer and set it up in your home office. You have moved your older computer into your child's room. The new computer—which is the ICS host—has an Ethernet network adapter attached to an external DSL or cable modem.
If there are phone jacks located near each computer, purchase:
  • One external USB HPNA network adapter for each computer.

Home phoneline network adapter (HPNA) kits are available that make it easy to network one or two computers together. You simply plug the network adapter into the USB port on the computer and into the phone jack. The computers are then networked together.
As in the previous setup example, another solution is to purchase wireless network adapters for both computers. Simply plug an adapter into the USB port on each, and the two computers can communicate using radio signals.

Computers in the same and different rooms

In this example, you have a couple of computers in the same room, computers in your children's rooms, a laptop, and perhaps one other computer in the kitchen. One of the two computers located in the same room is running Windows XP and has an external DSL or cable modem attached to an Ethernet network adapter.This computer is the ICS host. The other computer in this room also has an Ethernet network adapter. For these two computers, purchase:
  • One Ethernet network adapter for the ICS host computer (in addition to the Ethernet adapter this computer already contains).
  • One Ethernet network hub.
  • RJ-45 network cables to connect each computer to the hub.
For the computers in your children's rooms and the kitchen that do not have network adapters, purchase:
  • External USB HPNA network adapters for each computer.
  • One HPNA network adapter for the ICS host computer.
Purchasing HPNA adapters assumes the computers are located near telephone jacks. If they are not, or as an alternative, purchase:
  • Wireless network adapters for each computer, including the ICS host.
Finally, for the laptop—let's assume it contains a wireless network adapter—purchase:
  • One wireless network adapter for the ICS host computer, unless it already contains one.
Notice that in this example the ICS host computer must contain four separate network adapters! A simpler solution for such a complex network setup would be to install wireless network adapters on all computers.

Sketch your own setup

The locations of your own network components—computers, printer, etc.—and the distances between them probably will influence your choice of network type and wiring installation
To better visualize your needs, you might want to sketch the floor plan of your house showing the location of each device you intend to connect. Indicate the locations of electrical and telephone outlets, and obstacles to wiring such as walls and areas where exposed network cable might either be dangerous (bathrooms) or unsightly (living room). Then join the devices by sketching in the paths of the various cables required to connect them. If your Windows XP computer is going to share its Internet connection, note that in the sketch, too.

Protect your network




When you create a home network connected to the Internet, you increase the vulnerability of your computers to unauthorized access, including viruses. To protect your network, you need to create a type of barrier called a firewall. Windows XP comes with a firewall that you create when setting up a home network.

How does a firewall work?

Like an actual firewall built to prevent fire from spreading between adjoining buildings, computer firewalls prevent the spread of unauthorized communication between an individual computer or group of networked computers and the Internet. One of the most effective ways to protect a home network—and the least expensive—is to create a firewall on the ICS host computer, and to make sure that computer is the only one on the network with a direct connection to the Internet.

Other network possibilities

Another way to protect a home network is to use a hardware device called a residential gateway, or router. A residential gateway contains a firewall and replaces an ICS host computer as the central Internet connection. Because it contains no files, folders or other data, and cannot be used to manipulate computers to which it is linked, a residential gateway offers a greater degree of protection than an ICS host computer. Should a hacker manage to bypass the firewall, the only access gained is to the device, which is in effect empty. A disadvantage of a residential gateway is the extra cost it adds to putting together a network. You can create a home network having neither an ICS host computer nor a residential gateway, but at a high cost to security—and convenience. With such a setup, Internet access can be obtained by linking each computer directly to the Internet service provider via the computer's own modem, or else all computers on the network can be linked to an Ethernet hub, which functions as a central Internet connection. Neither of these methods provides firewall protection; and while Internet Connection Firewall can be enabled on networked computers running Windows XP, doing so prevents those computers from sharing files and devices such as printers.



Network building blocks




You'll need to base your network on one or more of the network technologies, or types, described below. In every case, however, you'll need these basics:
  • One computer equipped with Windows XP and Internet access. This computer will serve as the network's central unit, or Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) host. It should be your fastest, most capable machine.
  • One or more additional computers running Windows XP, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows 98 Second Edition, or Windows 98. These computers are called clients and will connect to the ICS host.
  • Individual network adapter for each computer
You can include Windows 95, Windows 2000, Macintosh or UNIX/Linux computers on your home network. However, these computers may require additional software to allow you to share folders or a printer. Consult the documentation that came with those computers.


Network types

While there are several different network types, this article explains the three most popular types for home networks:
  • Ethernet - the current standard technology and the one used by most businesses; links computers via special cable and a device called a hub.
  • HPNA (home phoneline network adapter) - links computers via existing household telephone wiring.
  • Wireless - links computers without wiring, by using radio signals.


The following table lists other properties, advantages and disadvantages of each network type:

Ethernet
HPNA
Wireless
Hardware needed in addition to network adapter
Ethernet RJ-45 cables and a network hub.
Telephone cables and phone jacks
May need an access point, a piece of hardware that acts as a central transmitter of radio signals between computers. Using an access point allows networking between any two computers on the system and expands the area radio signals are sent.
Advantages
Currently the fastest, most reliable, least costly network technology. Most DSL and cable modems use Ethernet connections.
Easy installation; computers simply plug into ordinary phone jacks.
Mobile; you can move your laptop or desktop computer from room to room while remaining connected to the network.
Disadvantages
Requires cables linking computers or Ethernet wiring (similar to phone wiring) installed in walls.
Requires a phone jack near each computer.
All networked computers must be within a specified distance to communicate with each other. Currently, wireless networks lack some of the capability of networks using physical connections. The cost of an access point is an additional expense to setting up the system.


Network adapters

All computers on a network require a hardware device called a network adapter. The easiest and fastest network adapters to install are external; that is, they connect to a computer via the USB port on the outside of the machine.
Internal network adapters must be installed inside the computer, requiring you to open or remove the computer housing. It is recommended that a qualified technician install an internal network adapter.

*

 


Network terms
Cable modem – A modem that connects a computer to a cable TV service that delivers Internet access.

DSL – (Digital Subscriber Line); A technology that greatly increases the capacity of ordinary telephone wires to carry digital information.

Hub – A hardware device that connects network components at a central location and transfers data between all of them.

RJ-45 cable – (Registered Jack-45); Eight-wire telephone cable used for linking computers to a local area network (LAN).
*

Assemble your network


When you've made up your mind about the type of network that's best for you, make a list of all the components you will need. It may help to start by listing all the equipment you have already have; that way you can more easily spot what is missing. Here's an example of how such a list might look:

Computer
Type of network adapter installed
Type of Internet connection
Other devices connected
Study/Den (ICS host)
Ethernet
DSL
Color Printer
Son's bedroom
None
Internal 56k modem
Digital camera
Daughter's bedroom
None
None
None
Family room
Ethernet
Internal 28.8k modem
Printer

Afterward, compare your list to the items required for the network you've chosen:

Network type
Network adapters needed
Hub type
Cables
Ethernet
One for each computer—all must operate at the same speed
One that supports the number of computers in your network
RJ-45 network cables for each computer in your network
Home phoneline network adapter (HPNA)
One for each computer
None
Telephone cables to run from each computer to a phone jack
Wireless
One for each computer
None
None
Now go shopping!

Connect components

When you've obtained everything you'll need to build your network, arrange the parts in their proper locations. Next, if you are using Ethernet or HPNA components, link the computers by running cable between them (Ethernet) or connecting each computer to the household telephone wiring via a phone jack (HPNA), or by simply installing the wireless network adapter.


Connect components

When you've obtained everything you'll need to build your network, arrange the parts in their proper locations. Next, if you are using Ethernet or HPNA components, link the computers by running cable between them (Ethernet) or connecting each computer to the household telephone wiring via a phone jack (HPNA), or by simply installing the wireless network adapter.

Run Windows XP Network Setup Wizard

The final step is to run Windows XP Network Setup Wizard. You'll need to do this first on the ICS host computer, then on each of the client computers. The wizard guides you through the following steps:
  • Configuring your network adapters.
  • Configuring all of your computers to share one Internet connection.
  • Naming each computer.
  • Automatically sharing the Shared Files folder with the computers on the network.
  • Automatically sharing printers that are connected to computers on the network.
  • Installing a firewall.
  • Installing network bridging components.
  • Installing Internet Connection Sharing Discovery and Control components.


Run Network Setup Wizard on the Host
You must run Network Setup Wizard on the Windows XP ICS host computer
  1. Click Start, and then click Control Panel.
  2. Click Network and Internet Connections, and then click Set up or change your home or small office network.

Follow the instructions that appear on the screen. Designate this computer (the host) as the one sharing its Internet connection. After running the wizard on your ICS host computer, run it on the client computers by performing the following steps:

Run Network Setup Wizard on the clients
  1. Insert the Windows XP CD-ROM.
  2. On the menu that appears, click Perform Additional Tasks.
  3. On the next menu that appears, click Setup home or small office networking.


If you do not own a Windows XP CD-ROM, you can copy Network Setup Wizard onto a floppy disk while running the wizard on the ICS host computer. Then use the floppy disk to run the wizard on the client computers. The floppy disk is created when you run Network Setup Wizard.
If you ran Network Setup Wizard and did not create a floppy disk, you'll need to run the wizard again to create the floppy disk. While running the wizard, make sure you use the same settings as when you ran the wizard the first time.
Run Network Setup Wizard from a floppy disk
  1. Insert the network setup disk into the computer you want to network.
  2. Double-click My Computer.
  3. Double-click 3½ Floppy (A:).
  4. Double-click netsetup.exe.

The wizard tests to make sure everything on your network is functioning correctly. When it is done, you're ready to enjoy your home network!



Safety warning
If you are installing any type of internal network adapter, ensure the power to the computer is switched off. Failure to do so could result in injury, as well as damage to your computer.

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